Jean-Louis Etienne
Jean-Louis Etienne - Alone on Ice pack
How man copes with the cold
Communications - Safety - Emergency assistance
Jean-Louis Etienne - Atmosphere & weather
The earth’s atmosphere  
Weather forecasting and modeling  
The climate and the north pole  
The solar energy balance  
The greenhouse effect  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Arctic ice
The ice pack: frozen saltwater  
Ice pack observation satellites  
Icebergs : frozen seawater  
The arctic ice: climate archives  
Ice ages and landscapes  
Jean-Louis Etienne - The ocean and marine life
The Arctic Ocean and the ocean currents  
Genesis of the arctic ocean  
Arctic plankton  
Oceanic biodiversity and the food chain  
Whales and other cetaceans  
Seals and walruses  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Life on land
Arctic flora  
Arctic fauna  
Polar bears  
Birds of the arctic  
Evolution of species and climate  
Jean-Louis Etienne - History and geography
Geography of the Arctic regions  
Geographic North Pole and magnetic North Pole  
Who owns the arctic ?  
Exploring the deep north  
The Inuit people  
The other peoples of the deep North  
The Arctic today  
Jean-Louis Etienne - Man's impact
Man and arctic biodiversity  
Pollution in the arctic  
Climate warming: the natural cycles  
The increase in the greenhouse effect  
The impact of global warming  
History and geography
Geographic North Pole and magnetic North Pole

The geographic North Pole is the end of the Earth's rotation axis and is the North on geographic maps. This pole lies in the middle of the Arctic Ocean.

The magnetic North Pole is the point where the lines of force of the Earth's magnetic field converge. This is the point that attracts the needle of a compass, and is not the same as the geographic pole. The magnetic North Pole was located for the first time in 1831 by John Ross in the Canadian High Arctic. Ross was exploring the North West passage by ship when his vessel became stuck in the ice for four years.

The magnetic North Pole is continually moving, but in the last few years it has moved from the Canadian North towards Siberia. It has also been moving unusually fast (40 km/year).

One sign that the position of the magnetic poles is becoming inverted is the reorientation of ferrite crystals in geological layers.

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