• Lighter-than-air ships  
  • How man copes with the cold  
  • Organisation of the measurement flights  
  • Flying conditions and risks during the expedition  
  • The measurement campaign  
  • Communications - Safety - Emergency assistance  
  • Earth observation satellites  
  • Our airship  
  • The earth's atmosphere  
  • Weather forecasting and modeling  
  • The climate and the north pole  
  • The solar energy balance  
  • The greenhouse effect  
  • The ice pack: frozen saltwater  
  • Icebergs : frozen seawater  
  • The arctic ice: climate archives  
  • Ice ages and landscapes  
  • The Arctic Ocean and the ocean currents  
  • Genesis of the arctic ocean  
  • Arctic plankton  
  • Oceanic biodiversity and the food chain  
  • Whales and other cetaceans  
  • Seals and walruses  
  • Arctic flora  
  • Arctic fauna  
  • Polar bears  
  • Birds of the arctic  
  • Evolution of species and climate  
  • Geography of the Arctic regions  
  • Geographic North Pole and magnetic North Pole  
  • Who owns the arctic?  
  • Exploring the deep north  
  • The Inuit people  
  • The other peoples of the deep North  
  • The Arctic today  
  • Man and arctic biodiversity  
  • Pollution in the arctic  
  • Climate warming: the natural cycles  
  • The increase in the greenhouse effect  
  • The impact of global warming  

History and geography
Geographic North Pole and magnetic North Pole

The geographic North Pole is the end of the Earth's rotation axis and is the North on geographic maps. This pole lies in the middle of the Arctic Ocean.

The magnetic North Pole is the point where the lines of force of the Earth's magnetic field converge. This is the point that attracts the needle of a compass, and is not the same as the geographic pole. The magnetic North Pole was located for the first time in 1831 by John Ross in the Canadian High Arctic. Ross was exploring the North West passage by ship when his vessel became stuck in the ice for four years.

The magnetic North Pole is continually moving, but in the last few years it has moved from the Canadian North towards Siberia. It has also been moving unusually fast (40 km/year).

One sign that the position of the magnetic poles is becoming inverted is the reorientation of ferrite crystals in geological layers.